ANTIBODIES

  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  • immunostaining
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Poly-clonal Antibodies
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Antibody Affinity
  • Antibody Cross-Reactivity
  • Antibody Reaction Rates
  • Antibody Stability
  • Handling of Antibodies

IMMUNOCHEMISTRY

  • Antibody Titer
  • Antibody Dilution
  • Antibody Incubation
  • BASIC ENZYMOLOGY
  • Enzymes
  • Substrates and Chromogens
  • Substrate- Chromogen Reagents

FIXATION

  • Blood Smears and Cytocentrifuged Preparations
  • Cytology Smears
  • Cryostat Sections
  • Paraffin-Embedded Sections
  • Fixations for Immuno-electronmicroscopy

ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL

  • Microwave oven and chelator Techniques
  • Cytology
  • Target for In Situ Hybridization
  • Antigen Retrieval and Its Use in Double-staining

STAINING METHODS

  • Direct
  • Two-Step Indirect
  • Three-Step Indirect
  • Soluble Enzyme Immuno Complex Techniques
  • (Strept)Avidin-Biotin Techniques
  • ABC Procedure Utilizing Catalyzed Signal Amplification (CSA)
  • LSAB Technologies
  • Chain Polymer-Conjugated Technology
  • EnVision Procedures for the Simultaneous Staining of Several Tissue Markers
  • Quick Staining Methods

CONTROLS

  • Reagent Controls

BACKGROUND

  • Hydrophobic Interaction
  • Ionic and Electrostatic Interactions
  • Endogenous Enzyme Activities
  • Natural and Contaminating Endogenous (Strepta)Avidin-Binding Activity (EABA)
  • Antigen Diffusion
  • Cross Reactivity
  • Fc Receptors
  • Complement-Mediated Binding
  • Miscellaneous Sources

AUTOMATION IN IMMUNO-HISTO-CHEMISTRY

  • Capillary Gap Method
  • Liquid Cover-slip Method
  • Open System